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CAE Software Testing

Computer-aided engineering (CAE) is usage of various numerical methods and techniques, e.g. Finite element method, to predict the behavior of the component under operating conditions. Engineering analysis broadly includes

• Finite element analysis (FEA)
• Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
• Multibody dynamics (MBD)
• Optimization

CAE tools also analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. The predictive capability of CAE tool enable design verification to be done using computer software rather than physical prototype testing thus saving time and money. Computer-aided engineering is used in many fields such as automotive, aviation, space, shipbuilding industries and many more. At Infinite Science, we test the CAE software as first user. Our expertise lies in testing
A] Multi Body Simulation:

Types of Analysis for Kinematics and Dynamics

• Rigid Body Analysis
• Rigid and Flexible Body Analysis
• Flexible Body Analysis

Modeling
• Creating Bodies
• Joints
      - Basic Joints : Bracket, Gear, Planar, Spherical, Cylindrical, Revolute, Translational, Universal, General, Slot, Prismatic etc.
      - Line Joints : Rolling Cylinder on Cylinder, Rolling Cylinder in Cylinder, Rolling Cylinder on Curve, Sliding Cylinder on Cylinder, Sliding Cylinder in Cylinder, Rolling Cone on Plane, Rolling Cone on Cone, Rolling Cone in Cone, Sliding Cylinder on Plane, Sliding Cylinder on Curve
      - Line-Plane, Point-Plane, Point-Line, Sliding Point on Curve
      - Curved Surface Joints : Belt
      - Contact Joints : Exact Contact Point Line 2D, 3D Full Body Contact, Contact Tire Ground etc.
      - Compound Joints : Spherical-Spherical, Revolute-Spherical, Revolute-Revolute, Revolute-Translational etc.
• Suspension and Vehicle Modeling
• Belt / Cable Equations Modeling
• Engine Modeling
• Chain Drives
• Gear Train Modeling
• Track Modeling
• Tire Modeling
Boundary Conditions
• Initial Conditions : Gravity, Initial Velocity
• Data Curves (Polynomial, Harmonic, Spline, Expressions etc.) for Joint Drivers etc.
• Forces
      - Springs with option to give free Length and Preload
      - Dampers
      - Tire Forces
      - Friction
      - Bushing Forces
      - Contact Forces
      - Aerodynamic Forces
• Constraints
      - Geometrical Constraints
      - Joint Driver Constraints
        - Joint Stops and Locks
        - Impact Force
        - Force, Moment, Rotations, Acceleration, Displacement
        - Function of Tabular Data
      - Joint Properties
        - Stiffness
        - Coefficient of Restitution
        - Damping
        - Friction Coefficient
• Relative Body Constraints
• Configuring the Initial Position

Post Processing and Visualization
• Motion Post Processing : Velocity, Acceleration, Position / Displacement, Energy, Spring Results and Joint Results
• Contour Plots (Deformation, Stress, Extreme Points)
• Collision Detection
• Animation
• Animation Features
      - Animation Scenes
      - Interference Feature
      - Animation Trace
      - Point Trace
• Creating and Viewing Graphs
      - Creating Fast Fourier Transform Curves
      - Creating and Viewing Multiple Graphs
      - Exporting Graph Values to External Files
• Export of Results
• Report Generation

Interface With Other Motion Analysis Software
• FEA Softwares
• Motion Softwares

B] Noise Vibration and Harshness:

Types of Analysis
• Transfer Function Prediction
• Forced Response Analysis
• Transfer Path Analysis
• Road Noise Prediction Analysis
• Modification Prediction Analysis
• Inverse Load Analysis
• Running Mode Analysis
• Averaging Analysis
• Coupling Analysis for predicting Dynamic Behavior for Assemblies
• Correlation Analysis
• Modal Assurance Criterion
• MAC Contribution
• Pre-Test Analysis
• Orthogonality Analysis
• Sensitivity Analysis
• Optimization of NVH Performance
• Vibro-Acoustic FRF Analysis
• Vibro-Acoustic Forced Response Analysis

Meshing
• Mapping of FE and Test Data
• Data Transfer for Structural and Acoustic Modal Data
• Data Mapping for Vibro-Acoustic Analysis
Pre-processing
• Preparing the Model using different types of Loadings (of Class Time-dependent, Frequency-dependent, Waterfall of Frequencies, Order Cut)

Solvers
• Generalized Receptance Coupling (GRC)
• Multi-Step Two Co-ordinate (MTC)
• Iterative
• Sparse Solvers
• Automated Component Modal Synthesis

Post-processing and Visualization
• Visualization of 2D and 3D Response Data (Time-dependent and Frequency-dependent) with different layouts such as Color Graphs, Bar Charts, Matrix Plots, Bode Plots, Ny-quist Plots etc
• Vector Plots
• Animation
• Export of Results
• Averaging of Functions : RMS, RSS, Linear Averaging, Complex Sum Peak Hold
• Report Generation

C] Multiphysics:

Types of Coupled Analyses
• Equation-Based Multiphysics, Free Formulation
• Structural-Thermal
• Electro-Optical
• Structural-Acoustic
• Structural-Optical
• Magneto-Structural
• Electro-Structural
• Electro-Thermal
• Thermal-Electromagnetic
• Fluid-Electrical
• Fluid-Magnetic
• Fluid-Structural
• Fluid-Thermal
• Fluid-Chemical Reactions
• Fluid-Thermal-Chemical in Tubular Reactors
• Fluid-Thermal-Phase Change
• Acoustic-Fluid
• Flow with Species Transport
• Electro-Osmotic Flow
• Piezoelectric Analysis

Solvers
• Stationary (Linear and Nonlinear)
• Parametric (Linear and Nonlinear)
• Time-Dependent Nonlinear Solver (DASPK)
• Adaptive Mesh Refinement Solver
• Eigenvalue Solver (ARPACK)
• Direct Solvers
      - UMFPACK LU Factorization
      - SPOOLES LU and LDLT Factorization
      - TAUCS Cholesky Factorization
      - PARDISO
      - Incomplete LU Factorization
• Iterative Solvers
      - Conjugate Gradients
      - Algebraic Multigrid
      - GMRES
      - Geometric Multigrid
• Preconditoners / Smoothers
      - Incomplete LU Factorization
      - Jacobi (Diagonal Scaling)
      - Algebraic Multigrid
      - SOR, SSOR, SSOR, SOR Vector, SOR Gauge
      - Geometric Multigrid
      - Vanka

Post-Processing
• Mesh Visualization and Mesh Quality Visualization
• Plots
      - Parametric Plots : Slice, Contour, Streamline, Vector, Particle Tracing, Isosurface etc.
      - Animation
      - Graphical Plots : Cross-Section Plot, Domain Plot and Global Plot
      - Integration : Sub domain, Boundary, Edge
• Report Generation
• Export of Results

D] Thermal:

Analysis Types
• Steady-State Thermal Analysis : Conduction, Convection, Radiation
• Coupled Field Analysis : Thermal-Stress, Thermal-Electrical, Thermal-Stress-Modal
• Transient Thermal Analysis including Phase Change Radiation

Geometries
• Parts : Solids, Shells, Beams
• Assemblies : Solids-Solids, Solids-Shells, Shells-Shells, Beams-Beams, Solids - Shells-Beams, Multi Bodies

Material Models
• Constant and Temperature Dependent Properties, Isotropic and Orthotropic
• Anisotropic

Prescribed Conditions
• Temperatures, Convection, Heat flow, Heat flux, Internal Heat Generation
• For Radiation Analysis : Enclosure, Radiating Surfaces, View Factors, Emissivity, Stefan-Boltmann Constant, Temperature Offset, Space Temperature, Space

Node, Radiation Symmetry
• Film Coefficient, Bulk Temperature, Load as function of Time and Location, Thermal Conductance

Initial Conditions
• Initial Temperature, Uniform and Non Uniform Temperature

Analysis Techniques
• Restarting Analysis, Adaptive Meshing, Parallel Processing, Element Birth and Death
• Parameters : CAD, Loads, Material
• SubModellng

Solution Control
• Solvers : Iterative and Direct
• Equilibrium Iteration Schemes Full / Quasi
• Multiple Load Steps, Substeps, Timesteps
• Convergence / Divergence Criterion : Heat Convergence, Temperature Convergence, Line Search
• Cutoff Criterion
• Solution Monitoring
• Time Integration (Transient Analysis)

Visualization
• Contour displays Temperature, Thermal Flex, Error, Thermal Reactions
• Results v/s Time
• Query Results, Probes, Annotations, HTML Report
• Load Display, Multiple View Ports, Slice Planes, Animations, and Response as function of Time

E] Durability:

Fatigue

Approach
• Stress Life (High Cycle Fatigue)
• Strain Life (Low Cycle Fatigue)

Types of Analysis
• Cumulative Fatigue Analysis
• Fatigue Analysis for Spot Welds
• Fatigue based on Dang Van Criteria
• Fatigue Analysis for Seam Welds

Loading Type
• Fully Reversed
• Ratio
• Zero Based
• Randomly Varying
• Non Proportional

Fatigue Properties
• S-N Curve
• Mean Stress Curves
• Monotonous properties for Strain Life Approach

Mean Stress Theories
• Soderberg
• Gerber
• Goodman
• No Mean Stress
• Multiple Mean Stress Curves
• Morrow
• Manson-Coffin-Morrow
• Smith-Watson-Topper
• Findley

Post Processing and Visualization
• Damage
• Fatigue Life
• Safety Factor
• Biaxiality Indication
• Rainflow Matrix
• Damage Matrix
• Equivalent Alternating Stress
• Hysteresis etc.

Fracture Mechanics

Fracture Modes
• Tensile or Opening
• Shearing or Sliding
• Tearing or Out of Plane

Fracture Parameters
• Stress-Intensity Factor (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics)
• Energy-Release Rate (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics)
• J-Integral (Linear Elastic as well as Nonlinear Elastic-Plastic Materials)

Material Models
• Johnson-Cook Plasticity Model
• Gurson's Model

Modeling and Meshing
• Quadratic Elements with Mid Side Nodes at Quarter Points (i.e. Singular Elements) for First Row of Elements near the Crack
• Coincident Crack Faces
• Different Crack Parameters like Length, Depth, Number of Rows of Elements around the Crack, Size of Elements around the Crack, Type of Crack like Through Crack or Surface Crack, Number of Elements through the Thickness of a Through Crack etc.

Crack Growth Simulation Models
• Cohesive Zone Approach
• Gurson's Model

Post Processing and Visualization
• J-Integral
• Stress-Intensity Factor
• Stress
• Displacement
• Animation
• Export of Results
• Report Generation

F] Computational Fluid Dynamics:

Analysis Types
• Transient Flow Analysis
• Steady-State Flow Analysis
• Laminar Flow Analysis
• Turbulent Flow Analysis
• Incompressible and Compressible Flow Analysis
• Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis
• Multi-Phase Flow Analysis
• Internal Flow Analysis
• External Flow Analysis
• Aero-acoustic Analysis
• Pressure Acoustic Analysis
• Convection and Conduction Analysis
• Porous Media Analysis
• Convective and Diffusive Flow Analysis
• High Reynolds Number Flow (Standard Wall Function-Log Law)
• Low Reynolds Number Flow Analysis (Enhanced Wall Function-Simulation of Viscous Sub-Layer)
• Moving Boundary Type Flow Analysis (Rotating Frame Analysis)
• Spray and Atomization
• Species Transport
• Cavitating Flow

Coupled Flow Analyses
• Thermo-Fluid Coupling Analysis
• Fluid-Structural Coupling Analysis
• Thermo-Fluid-Structural Coupling Analysis

Geometry / Modeling
• 1D, 2D, 2D-Axisymmetric, 3D in Native Tools and Commands
• Geometry Import : IGES, STEP, PARASOLID, ACIS, CATIA as well as CAD Geometry Files

Meshing
• 2D Meshing (Triangular, Quadrilateral Meshing)
• 3D Meshing (Tetrahedral, Hexahedral, Pyramid, Polyhedral, Trapezoidal Meshing)
• Boundary Layer Meshing
• Adaptive Meshing
      - Pressure Based
      - Velocity Based
      - Y+/ Y* Value Based
• Linear, Quadratic Lagrange Elements

Initial Conditions
• Temperature
• Velocity
• Pressure
• Turbulent Kinetic Energy (If Applicable)
• Turbulent Dissipation Rate (If Applicable)
• Concentration
• User Defined (Patch Region)

Boundary Conditions
• Outlet [Velocity / Pressure / Outflow (Fractional Flow)]
• Inlet [Velocity / Pressure / Laminar Inflow (Average Velocity / Entrance Pressure & Characteristics Entry Length), Turbulence Specification - k and ε, or Turbulence Intensity and Turbulence Length Scale or Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Turbulent Dissipation Rate]
• Total Stress / Viscous Stress
• Wall [Logarithmic Wall Function for Turbulent Flow, No-Slip Boundary Condition for Laminar Flow, Wall Roughness]
• Moving Wall with Logarithmic Wall Function
• Wall Stress (Shear / Total)
• Fan
• Slip / Symmetry
• Axis Boundary
• Concentration

Operating Conditions
• Gravity
• Operating Pressure
• Operating Temperature
• Operating Density

Turbulence Models
• Spalart Allamaras
• k-e (Standard / RNG / Realizable)
• k-ω
• RSM (Reynolds Stress Model)
• LES (Large Eddy Simulation)
• DES (Detached Eddy Simulation)
• Near Wall Treatments : Standard Wall Function (for High Reynolds Number Flow) and Enhanced Wall Function (for Low Reynolds Number Flow)

Material Models
• Gases (Ideal Gas, Incompressible Fluid)
• Solids
• Liquids (Temperature Dependent and Temperature Independent)
• Non-Newtonian Fluids
• User Defined

Solvers
• FEM (Finite Element Method) Solvers:
      - Direct solver : UMFPACK, SPOOLS, PARDISO, TAUCS
      - Iterative solver : GMRES, FGMRES, Geometric Multigrid)
• FVM (Finite Volume Method) Solvers
      - Segregated Based : Implicit Method
      - Coupled Based : Implicit / Explicit Method

For both above methods, following types of Solvers are also applicable
• Stationary
• Transient
• Parametric

Post Processing
• Contour Plots (2D and 3D)
• Slice Plots
• XY Plots
• Vector Plots (Proportional / Normalized)
• Streamline Plots
• Particle Tracing Plots
• Isosurface Plots
• Deformed Shape Plots (Particularly for Fluid-Structure Interaction)
• Animation
• Export of Results
• Report Generation

Specific Applications
• Heat Exchanger (Thermo-Fluid Interaction)
• Flow Over Bluff Bodies
• Turbulent Flow in a Curved or Bend Pipe
• Peristaltic Pump (Fluid-Structure Interaction)
• Flow Over an Asymmetric Aerofoil (Compressible Flow)
• Rising Bubble (Two-Phase Flow Problem)
• Rotating Bowl Having Partially Filled with Water (Two Phase Flow)
• Centrifugal Pump
• 2D Schematic Pump
• Turbulent Flow Over a Backstep (Free Surface Flow)
• Cooling Tower (Evaporating Liquid Spray)
• Cyclone Separator

G] Structural:

Analysis Types
• Structural Static
• Modal
• Harmonic Response
• Collapse and Post Buckling
• Transient Dynamic
• Spectrum
• Buckling
• Fatigue and Fracture
• Coupled Field
• Non-Linear Analysis : Geometries, Material and Contacts
• Special Analysis : Gasket Joint Simulation, Composites, 2D Analysis, Creep

Geometries
• Parts : Solids, Shells, Beams, Rigid Bodies
• Assemblies : Solids-Solids, Solids-Shells, Shells-Shells, Beams-Beams and Solids-Shells
• Beams, Rigid-Rigid, Multi Bodies, Rigid-Deformable

Material Models
• Linear Elastic : Isotropic, Orthotropic, Anisotropic and Temperature Dependent Material Nonlinear Elastic
• Plastic : Bilinear, Multilinear and Nonlinear Kinematics and Isotropic Hardening, Drucker
• Hyperelastic : Neo-Hookean, Anisotropic, Mooney Riving, Polynomial, Ogden, Armuda
• Boyce, Gent, Yeoh, Blatz ko
• Prager, Huber Von Mises
• Others : Viscoelastic, Creep, Gasket Materials, Rate-Dependent Plastic (Viscoplastic)
• Material Curve Fitting, Cast Iron Plasticity, User Defined Material Models

Connectors Modeling
• Contacts : Bonded, No Separation, Rough, Frictionless, Frictional, Contact Interface, Rigid-Deformable Contact
• Joints : Stiffness and Damping, Frictional Behavior
• Spot, Seam and Seal Welds
• Multipoint Constraints
• Coupling and Constraint Equations

Initial Conditions
• Velocity
• Stress / Strain
• Initial Temperatures
• Motion Loads
• Fluid Pressure

Prescribed Conditions
• Loads : Force, Displacement, Pressure, Hydro Static Pressure, Bearing Load, Acceleration and Velocity, Loads As Per User Defined Co-ordinate Systems (Cartesian, Spherical and Cylindrical), Springs and Mass, Pretension Bolt Load, Joint Drivers
• Loads as Function of Time and Location, Base Motion
• Remote Loads : Force, Moments, Displacements
• Constraints : Fixed Support, Simply Supported, Specified Displacement / Rotations, Symmetry or Anti-symmetry, Periodic or Anti Periodic, Rigid Wall

Analysis Techniques
• Restarting Analysis, Sub-Structuring, Inertia Relief, Adaptive Meshing, Parallel Processing, Element Birth and Death
• Sub-Modeling
• Parameters : CAD, Loads, Material

Solution Control
• Solvers : Sparse, PCG, Frontal Distributed
• Multiple Load Steps, Sub-Steps, Time-Steps
• Equilibrium Iteration Schemes Newton-Raphson Approach, Arc-Length Method
• Convergence / Divergence Criterion : Force, Moment, Displacement, Rotation, Line Search
• Time Integration (Transient Analysis)
• Cutoff Criterion
• Solution Monitoring
• Damping : Rayleigh, Modal, Element, Material-Dependent Damping, Constant Material Damping Coefficient

Visualization
• Contour Displays Stress, Strain Deformation and Factor of Safety, Contact Results, Deformed Shape Displays, Vector Displays, Reaction Force Displays, Thickness
• Load Display, Multiple View Ports, Slice Planes, Animations, Response as Function of Time, Query Results, Probes, Annotations
• HTML Report

H] Electromagnetic:

Types of Analysis
• Low Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis
      - Static Magnetic Analysis
      - Transient Magnetic Analysis
      - Harmonic Magnetic Analysis
• High Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis
      - Modal Analysis
      - Harmonic Analysis
      - Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis
• Coupled Field Analysis
      - Piezo - Acoustic
      - Thermo - Electrical
      - Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

Prescribed Conditions
• Magnetic Flux
• Voltage
• Current : AC / DC
• Number of Turns of the Coil
• Charge Density
• Capacitance
• Damping
• Electric Potential
• Magnetic Potential
• Vector Potential
• Symmetry
• Far Field

Material Properties
• Relative Permeability
• Non - Linear Orthotropic Permeability
• Linear Orthotropic Permeability
• B - H Curve
• Resistivity
• Linear Hard Magnetic Material With Coercive Force and Residual Induction
• Demagnetization B - H Curve for Nonlinear Hard Magnetic Material

Solvers
• Sparse
• Frontal
• PCG
• FFT
• Jacobi Conjugate Gradient
• RF3P
• 3-D Finite Volume Field Solver

Post Processing and Visualization
• Electric Potential
• Magnetic Potential
• Flux Density
• Field Intensity
• Current Density
• Electromagnetic Force and Torque
• Flux
• Inductance
• Capacitance
• Stored Energy
• Animation
• Contour Plots
• Hysteresis Plot
• Error
• Frequency
• Report Generation
• Export of Results

I] Design and Technological Optimization:

Techniques
• Design Of Experiments
• Optimization (Local and Global)
• Variational Technology
• Multi Objective Optimization
• Probabilistic Design
• Robust Design
• Reliability Analysis
• Six Sigma Analysis
• What If Study
• Boolean
• Independent
• Topological Optimization

Algorithms and Solvers
• Monte Carlo simulation
• Genetic Algorithm
• Neural Network Algorithm
• Differential Evaluation
• Mixed Integer Linear Programming
• Generalized Reduced Gradient Method
• Sequential Quadratic Programming
• Interior Point method
• Nonlinear Programming Quadratic Line Search
• Normal Boundary Intersection Method
• Simulated Annealing
• Efficient Global Optimization
• Random Search
• Weighted objective Method
• Tradeoff Method
• Distance Function
• Full Factorial
• Placket Burman
• Central Composite Methods
• Box-Behnken
• Latin Hypercube
• Star Points
• Response Surface Modeling (Least Squares, Interpolation)

Types of Parameters
• Real with Distribution
• Integer with Distribution
• String
• Discrete
• Continuous
• Boolean

Disciplines
• Structural
• Steady State Thermal
• Transient
• Modal
• Buckling
• Harmonic
• Noise and Vibrations
• Random Vibration
• Electromagnetic
• Electric
• Acoustics
• Durability
• Motion
• CFD
• Injection Molding
• Multi-Disciplinary
• Mathematical Expressions

Post Processing and Visualization
• Contour Plots
• 2D Charts
• Response Surface
• Graphics Display
• Sensitivity Charts
• Spider Charts
• Trade Off
• Getting the Best Optimized Design
• Sample History
• Histogram
• Cumulative Distribution
• Scatter Plots
• Correlation Matrix

Function Probabilities
• Snap Shots
• Report Generation
• Animation

J] Acoustics:

Types of Methods
• FEM-Acoustic
      - Frequency Domain
      - Time Domain
• BEM
      - Indirect
      - Direct (External / Internal / Mixed)
• Inverse Boundary Element Method
• Multi Domain
• Mixed Domain
• Coupled and Uncoupled

Types of Analysis
• Response Analysis of Acoustic Transfer Vector
• Modal Acoustic Transfer Vector Response Analysis
• Noise Transfer Analysis
• Vibro-Acoustic Response Analysis
• Acoustic Response Analysis
• Analysis of Acoustic Fields
• Analysis of Acoustic Transfer Vector
• Data Transfer from Structural to Acoustic Mesh
• Principal Component Analysis
• Post Processing of Random Vibration Analysis
• Modal Based Random Post Processing
• Panel Contributions
• Acoustic Sensitivity Analysis for Design Optimization
• Mean Flow Analysis
• Optimization of Acoustic Power
• Acoustic Source Quantification

Modeling / Meshing
• Trim Modeling
• Field Point Meshing
• Perforated Tubes and Surfaces
• Diffuse Field Modeling
• Acoustic Mesh Preprocessing
• Vibro-Acoustic Mapping
• Poroelastic Modeling
• Pre Acoustic Meshing
      - Frequency Domain
      - Skin Meshing
      - Cavity Meshing
      - Detecting / Closing the Openings / Holes
      - Mesh Wrapper
      - Control Block
      - Auto Control Block
      - Stitch, Detach
      - Ray Tracing

Prescribed Conditions
• Acoustic Sources
      - Monopole Point Source
      - Cylindrical Wave
      - Plane Wave
      - Distributed Plane Wave
• Acoustic Boundary Conditions
      - Pressure
      - Displacements
      - Velocities
      - Acceleration
      - Jump of Acoustic Pressure
      - Jump of Pressure Gradient
• Acoustic Velocity
• Radiation Conditions
• Robin Boundary Condition (Curved Boundary)
• Baffled and Un-baffled Aperture for Opening Simulation
• Stochastic-Diffuse Sound Field and Boundary Layer

Material Properties
• Fluid Material
• Visco-Elastic Material
• Isotropic Material
• Poro-Elastic Material

Acoustic Properties
• Absorbent Property (Surface and Volume)
• Acoustic Fluid
• Infinite Element
• Transfer Admittance
• Multilayer Trim Property

Solvers
• Sysnoise

Solution controls
• Batch Mode Computation
• Parallel Computation

Post Processing and Visualization
• User Selected Frequency Range : 1/3 Octave, Octave and Fixed Band
• Averaging of Functions : RMS, RSS, Linear Averaging, Complex Sum Peak Hold
• Visualization of 2D and 3D Response Data (Time-dependent and Frequency-dependent) with different Layouts such as Colour Graphs, Bar Charts, Matrix Plots, Bode Plots, Ny-quist Plots, Vector Plots etc.
• Transmission Loss
• Auto & Cross - PSD
• Animation
• Export of Results
• Report Generation

K] Crash and Explicit Solvers:

Types of Analysis
• Drop Test Analysis
• Crash Analysis : Automotive Applications
      - Seat Belt Anchorage, Sled Test
      - Impact Analysis : Vehicle Crash against Rigid Wall, Pole, Car to Car, Frontal / Rear Impact
      - Air Bag Simulation
      - Dummy Modeling for Crash Simulations
• Aerospace Applications
      - Bird Strike Analysis
      - Failure Analysis
• Crack Simulations : Crack Growth and Failure
• Plastics, Mold, and Blow Forming
• Metal Forming Applications
      - Metal Stamping
      - Hydro Forming
      - Forging
      - Deep Drawing
      - Multi-Stage Processes
• Fluid Structural Interaction
• Biomedical
• Can and Shipping Container Design
• Metal Cutting
• Earthquake Engineering
• Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

Modeling / Meshing
• Beams, Shells : Triangular, Quadrilateral, Solids : Tetra, Hexa, Pyramid, Trapezoidal, Trapezoidal, Polyhedral meshing
• Different Element Formulations for Shells and Solids
• Integration Beams and Shells
• Connection Modeling
• Joints : Cylindrical, Spherical, Revolute, Universal, Sliding
      - Rigid Links
      - Merged Rigid Bodies
      - Extra Nodes
• Contacts : Automatic Single Surface, Automatic Surface to Surface, Tide Contacts, Node to Surface, Surface to Surface, Eroding, Forming Contacts, Interior, Coupling etc.
      - Flexible Body Contact
      - Flexible Body to Rigid Body Contact
      - Rigid Body to Rigid Body Contact
      - Edge-to-Edge Contact
      - Rigid Walls
      - Draw Beads
• Adaptive Meshing
• Time Step
• Retractors, Sensors, Accelerometers
• Seatbelts, Sliprings, Pretensioners
• Airbags, Inflator Models
• Hybrid III Dummy Models

Boundary Conditions
• Force, Pressure, Impact Loading
• Initial Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration etc.
• Inflow (Velocity or Pressure, Turbulence Specifications - k and ε, or Turbulence Intensity and Length Scale)
• Outflow (Velocity or Pressure)
• Wall (Logarithmic Wall Function for Turbulent Flow, No-slip Boundary Condition for Laminar Flow)
• Fluid and Structural Interaction
• Rigid Wall : Finite, Infinite
• Frontal, Rigid Wall Impact, Offset Deformable Barrier [ODB] Impact, Rigid Pole Impact
• Dummy Modeling : Hybrid 3 - 95, 98 Percentile, EURO SID
• EURONCAP, USNCAP, JNCAP

Material Models
• Plastics : Thermoset, Thermoelastic
• Metals : Elastic, Orthotropic Elastic, Kinematic / Isotropic Elastic - Plastic, Thermo Elastic Plastic, Power Law Isotropic Plasticity, Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity, Thermal Isotropic Elastic, Elastic - Plastic with Failure Models, Johnson Cook, Ramberg-Osgood Plasticity
• Glass : Laminated Glass
• Foams : Blatz-Ko Compressible Foam, Low Density Urethane Foam, Isotropic Crashable Foam, Viscous Foam, Bilkhu/Dubois Foam, Fu-Chang’s Foam with Rate Effects, Pitzer Crashable Foam, Deshpande-Fleck Foam, Simplified Foam
• Fabrics : Laminated Composite Fabric, Viscoelastic Fabric, Rate Sensitive Composite Fabric
• Elastomers : Blatz-Ko Rubber, Slightly Compressible Rubber, Compressive Mooney, Hyperviscoelastic Rubber, Cellular Rubber, Simplified Rubber, Arruda-Boyce Rubber, Rate Sensitive Polymers
• Honeycombs : Metallic Honeycomb
• Concrete & Soils : Soil, Crashable Foams, Soil, Crashable Foams with Failure Models, Non Crashable Foams, Concrete, Hysteretic Soil, FHWA Soil Model
• Composites : Composite Damage Models, Composite Failure, Winfrith Composite, Composite Matrix, Composite Lay-up Model, Composite MSC
• Visco - Elastic - Maxwell / Kelvin, Orthotropic Viscoelastic
• Acoustic, Air Bag Materials
• Miscellaneous : Hydraulic / Gas Dampers, MTS, Springs, Sandia’s Damage Model, Soft Tissues, Muscle, Lung Tissue, Vacuum, Hill3RC, Seamered Crack, Cohesive Elastic, Cohesive TH, RC Shear Wall, Seismic Isolator, Spot Weld, Cable
• User-defined materials

Solution Controls
• Mass Scaling
• Hour-Glass Setting
• Time Integration Step
• Parallel Processing, Clusters
• Restart

Solvers
• Implicit
• Explicit
• Implicit-to-Explicit Sequential Solutions

Post Processing & Visualization
• Vector Plot (Proportional / Normalized)
• Contour Plots (Boundary, Surface for 2D, Sub-domain for 3D)
• Streamline Plot
• Deformed Shape (Specially for Fluid-Structure Interaction)
• Force Components, Max Bending and Shear, Rigid Wall Forces, Contact Forces, Spot Weld Forces, Joint Forces
• Rigid Body Simulation - Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration
• Effective Plastic Strain, Stress etc.
• Internal Energy, Kinetic Energy, Total Energy, Hourglass Energy, Sliding Interface Energy
• The J-Integral Calculation
• Stress-Intensity Factors Calculation
• Hour Glass
      - Constant Stress
      - Fully Integrated Selective Reduced (S / R) Solid
      - Fully Integrated Quadratic Eight-node Element with Nodal Rotations
• History Results for result items mentioned above
• Animation
• Follow Animation using Point and / or Plane
• Export of Results : ASCII Files for - Nodal Displacements, Velocity, Acceleration, Joint Forces, Energy Values, Rigid Wall Forces, Contact Forces, Seat Belt Forces etc.
• Report Generation

L] Injection Molding Simulation:

Types of Analysis
• Thermoset Injection Molding
• Thermoplastic Injection Molding
• Resin Transfer Injection Molding
• Co-injection Molding
• Multi-color Injection Molding
• Gas / Water Assisted Injection Molding
• Thin Wall Injection Molding
• Micro-cellular Injection Molding
• Reactive Injection Molding
• Injection Compression Molding

Analysis Sequences
• Warp
• Flow
• Cool
• Optimization of Feed System (Runner, Sprue and Gate)
• Optimization of Mold Cooling Circuit
• Process Optimization

Modeling and Meshing
• 1D Elements : Beam Element for Feed System
• 2D Elements : Triangular-Elements
      - Midplane Mesh
      - Fusion Mesh
• 3D-Elements : Tetrahedral Solid Mesh
• Meshing Parameters
      - L / D Ratio
      - Mesh Match Ratio in Fusion Mesh
      - Mesh Orientation
• Modeling of Feed System (Runner, Sprue and Gate)
• Modeling of Mold Cooling Circuit

Boundary Conditions
• Process Settings
      - Mold Temperature
      - Melt Temperature
      - Mold Material Selection
      - Injection Molding Machine Selection
      - V / P Switchover Parameter
      - Pressure Profile across Injection Cycle etc.
• Placing an Injection Location

Material Models
• Thermoset Material
• Thermoplastic Material (Unfilled)
• Mineral Filled Material
• Fiber (Glass / Carbon) Filled Material
• Blends
• Resin Materials

Solvers
• AMG (Algebraic Multi-Grid) Matrix Solver
• Full Navier-Stoke Solver
• Fast Segregated Solver

Interface with Structural Analysis Software
• Import and Export Mesh Data
• Exporting Fiber induced Anisotropic Material Properties to Structural Analysis Software
• Element Transformation
• Exporting In-mold Stresses formed due to Variable Shrinkage, Non-uniform Cooling and Warpage

CAD and FEA Connectivity
• CATIA
• SolidWorks
• ASCII / Binary Model (*.udm)
• ProE
• Parasolid
• STEP
• IGES
• Stereolithography
• Fem
• Patran
• Nastran
• Ansys
• IDEAS
• Post Processing and Visualization
• Fill Time
• V / P Switchover Pressure
• Flow Front Temperature
• Bulk Temperature
• Pressure at Injection Location
• Time to Freeze
• Air Traps
• Average Velocity
• Clamp Force
• Orientation at Core
• Orientation at Skin
• Warpage Deflection
• Runner Balance Sections
• Average Shrinkage
• Weld and Meld Lines
• Animation
• Images
• Export of Results
• Report Generation

M] Meshing:

Elements Types and Techniques
• Discrete Elements (Mass, MPCs, Springs and Dampers)
• 1D Elements (Bar, Beam, Rod, Rigid Links, Truss, Pipe)
• 2D Elements (Triangular, Quadrilateral, Mapped Meshing, Plates, Shear, Variable Thickness and Composites)
• 3D Elements (Tetrahedral, Hexahedral, Pyramid, Polyhedral, Wedges, Trapezoidal)
• Linear, Nonlinear Lagrange Elements
• Low / High Order Elements
• Iso-parametric, Sub-parametric and Super-parametric Elements
• Super Elements, Element - Birth / Death, Sub-Structuring
• Non-Linear Stabilization
• Full, Reduced Integration
• Patch Test

Element Formulations
• Lagrangian Formulation
• h and p Method
• Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Formulation
• Pure Displacement Formulation
• u-P Formulation
      - u-P Formulation I
      - u-P Formulation II
      - Mixed u-P Formulation
• Volumetric Constraint Equations in u-P Formulations
• Direct / Integral Boundary Formulation
• Weighted Formulation
• Reciprocal Formulation
• Euclidean Norm Formulation
• Vector Potential Formulation
• Trefftz Formulation

Mesh Controls
• Mapped, Sweep, Quad Dominant, Hex Dominant and Mixed Meshing
• Bias, Seed, Sizing, Relevance, Refinement
• De-featuring - Simplification
• Adaptive Meshing
• Element Growth Ratio
• Spacing, Inflation, Periodicity, Proximity
• Element Splitting and Merging
• Remove Triangles Automatically from Internal / External Perimeters and Spot Welds
• Analyzing different Meshing Errors like Inadequate Seeding, Bad / Invalid / Non Manifold Geometry, Poor Boundary Triangles, Imprecise geometry and Small Geometry etc.

Mesh Distribution Techniques
• CFD Analysis related Meshing Controls
      - Oct-Tree Approach
      - Area Patch Independent
      - Boundary Layer Meshing
• Structural / Thermal Analysis [General] related Meshing Controls
      - Medial Axis
      - Advancing Front
• NVH, Acoustical, Vibro-Acoustical Analyses related Meshing Controls
      - Variational Boundary Elements
• Electromagnetic Analysis related Meshing Controls
      - Skin Depth Analysis
• Thermal Analysis related Meshing Controls
      - Element Deactivation
      - Conductance Thinning
      - Sub-structuring. For Large Radiation Models, an Automated Patching Scheme based on Element Clusters

Mesh Modification and Treatment
• Degenerate, Split / Combine Elements
• Extrude, Revolve, Sweep of Elements
• Mesh Projections
• Mesh Alignment

Meshing Quality Checks
• Skewness, Skew Angle
• Aspect Ratio
• Distortion
• Jacobian
• Minimum and Maximum Angle in Quad and Tria elements
• % of Triangular Elements in Shells
• % of Tetrahedral Elements in Solids
• Max Length, Min Length, Length Ratio, Modified Length Ratio, Altitude + Length Ratio
• Altitude Tetra, Altitude Ratio
• Max Frequency
• Shape Factor
• Stretch
• Taper
• Warp Angle, Warp Factor
• Stable Time Increment
• Mesh Quality Plots
• Mesh Statistics, Mesh Metrics, Mesh Match Ratio, Mesh Integrity

N] Interfaces:
Our Interfaces Testing capabilities include the Import, Editing, and Export of the Finite Element Data from and to various CAE Tools like ANSYS, FEMAP, ABAQUS, HYPERMESH, LS-DYNA, MSC.NASTRAN, NEi NASTRAN etc.

Mesh Data
• Verification of the 1D, 2D and 3D Elements and respective properties
• Verification of the Mesh Statistics and Mesh Metrics
• Import of the Finite Element Data like Nodes, Elements, Materials, Connections and Contacts, Solution and Solver Settings
• Converting Higher Order Elements to Lower Order Elements
• Mesh Alignment
• Remove Triangles Automatically from Internal / External Perimeters and Spots Welds
• Editing the Finite Element Data like Moving Nodes and verifying effect on the Mesh Quality
• Reconstruct Mesh to Coarsen and Smoothen Mesh Transitions
• Mesh Projections
• Mid-plane Extraction
• Mesh Morphing like Transformations, Rotations of Edges / Faces
• Skin Detection for creation of Geometry
• Parametric Mesh
• Various Quality and Model Integrity Checks including Connectivity Checks
• Messages for the Incompatible Features
• Export of the Finite Element Data
• Export of the Mesh Statistics

Material Data
• Import different Materials in different formats like BDF, CDB, MATLAB files, and XML
• Import of the Finite Element Data having Materials with different Material Models like Elastic, Elastic - Plastic, Visco - Elastic, Hyperelastic Models, Acoustic, Composites, Thermal Isotropic, Thermal Orthotropic etc.
• Verification of Materials and Material Properties
• Apply / Edit Materials and Material Properties
• Material Library Support
• Export of the Materials to formats like BDF, CDB, MATLAB files, and XML

Boundary Condition Data
• Verification of the Boundary Conditions
• Apply / Edit the Boundary Conditions
• Import of the Finite Element Data having the Boundary Conditions
• Apply / Edit the scope for the Boundary Conditions
• Export of the Finite Element Data having the Boundary Conditions

Miscellaneous Data
• Mesh Groups / Components
• History Curves : Load and Material Curves
• Solution and Solver Settings like Element Formulations, Integration Methods etc.
• Import of the Finite Element Data having Coordinate Systems, Connections and Contacts, Mesh Groups / Components, History Curves, Solution and Solver Settings
• Verify / Apply / Edit
• Axis Systems : Types, Orientation and Location
• Connections and Contacts with their properties and the Associated Mesh Parts
• Visual Checks
• Verification of the Interface for Entity Cards
• Export to the Third Party formats like ANF, CDB, DAT, MATLAB files and UNV

O] Sheet Metal Forming:

Modules
• Blank Design
• Drawbead Design
• Hydro Forming
• Part Design
• Die Design
• Process Design and Optimization
• Blank Optimization
• Trim Optimization

Material Properties
• Hardening Curve
      - Ludwick
      - Swift
      - Voce's
      - Ghosh
• Yield Surface
      - Hill
      - Hosford
      - Barlat
      - Banabic
• Forming Limit Curve
      - Experimental
      - Keeler

Solvers
• One-Step
• Incremental (Implicit/Explicit)
• Hydroforming

Results, Post-processing and Visualization
• Springback
• Thickness Results, Formability, Wrinkling Results, Contact Results, Geometry Results, Stress/Strain Results
• Tool Forces : Die Force, Punch Force and Binder Force, Cutting Force, Weight, Bead Force
• Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) : Linear and Non-Linear
• Animation

P] Data Library:

Types of Engineering Data
• Function : Location, Temperature and Time
• Random
• Load Data
      - Constant
      - Function : Location and Time
      - Random
• Material Data
      - Material Models : Isotropic, Orthotropic, Hyperelastic etc.
      - Material Properties : Young’s modulus, Thermal Conductivity, Permeability, Resistivity etc.
• Constant
• Beam Cross-Section Data
• Real Constants

Features tested for the above types of Engineering Data
• Creation, Modification and Deletion of Data Library
• Unit Conversion
• Adding / Removing / Modifying of properties
• Parameterization
• Import
• Export
• Access to the database
• Suppress / Unsupress of properties
• Standard Libraries
• Data curves / Curve Fitting
• Mathematical Functions
• Data Visualization
• Saving to the database
• File formats
• Interaction of the Data Library with CAE Tools
      - Assigning Materials, Cross-Sections
      - Assigning Functions to Loads / Material Properties
      - Verifying successful usage of Data Library Materials, Cross-Sections and Functions

Q] Testing Procedure:

Our Testing procedure includes:
• Accuracy Testing of CAD/CAE/CAM software for standard / non-standard engineering problems using exact solutions
• Creation of Test plans covering Positive, Negative and complicated test scenarios for expected behaviors and updating continuously to reflect changes
• Unit, Component and Integration Testing, Load and Stress Testing, and Multiplatform Testing. Coverage Analysis for identifying Use Cases / Test Cases
• Development of API's
• Automation Scripting and Regression Management
• Regression Tool Expertise on Rational Visual Test, X-Runner, Win-Runner
• Software Reliability Analysis
• Bug Reporting System- Web linked bug database for reporting and maintaining track of bugs reported and fixed
• Development of Custom Defined Test Tools
• Expertise in Mathematical Tools Like Matlab
• Scripting Language Expertise in VB Script, JavaScript, Perl and Shell